Neurological disability: Motor Learning, Physical Activity and Sport

The attainment of motor skills involves a process of motor learning whose principles integrate information from psychology, neurology, physical education, and rehabilitation research. Together these disciplines shape our understanding of how individuals progress from novice to skilled motor performance throughout the lifespan. Perspectives in motor control are based on evolving models of the nervous system and represent the paradigm shifts that have taken place throughout history. Physical activity maintained throughout life is associated with lower incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases. Recent studies suggest that physical exercise also protects against dementia. Chronological aging, or senescence, is associated with an increased risk of chronic conditions and diseases such as cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Disability sports classification is a system that allows for fair competition between people with different types of disabilities. The purpose of disability sports classification is similar to the selective classification used in some sports. Such selection criteria include gender, age, weight or size. Selective classification is based on variables that are believed to be predictive of performance, with the goal of minimizing the impact of these variables on outcome even as there is a great range in terms of performance inside these classification based on other variables.