Neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke are rapidly increasing as population ages. The field of nanomedicine is rapidly expanding and promises revolutionary advances to the diagnosis and treatment of devastating human diseases. Recently discovered nanotubes and nanofibers are evaluated as promising scaffolds for neuro regeneration. Novel experimental neuroprotective strategies also include nanomaterials, such as fullerenes, which have antioxidant properties to eliminate reactive oxygen species in the brain to mitigate oxidative stress. Providing therapy that conserves healthy brain tissue, while effectively killing cancerous tissue, remains a major challenge. Neurology is a special branch of medical Sciences that deals primarily with the disorders in the central nervous system. Recent R-fMRI studies have identified putative biomarkers of neuropsychiatric illness, provided insight into the development of functional networks in the maturing and aging brain demonstrated a shared intrinsic functional architecture between humans and nonhuman primates and delineated the effects of sleep, anesthesia, and pharmacologic agents on R-fMRI measures.